Examples: A&E data

library(eider)
library(magrittr)

This series of vignettes in the Gallery section aim to demonstrate the functionality of eider through examples that are similar to real-life usage. To do this, we have created a series of randomly generated datasets that are stored with the package. You can access these datasets using the eider_example() function, which will return the path to where the dataset is stored in your installation of R.

ae_data_filepath <- eider_example("random_ae_data.csv")

ae_data_filepath
#> [1] "/tmp/Rtmpo5hq1P/Rinstb033472482e/eider/extdata/random_ae_data.csv"

The data

In this specific vignette, we are using simulated accident and emergency (A&E) data. Our dataset does not contain every column specified in here, but serves as a useful example of how real-life data may be treated using eider.

ae_data <- utils::read.csv(ae_data_filepath) %>%
  dplyr::mutate(date = as.Date(date))

dplyr::glimpse(ae_data)
#> Rows: 100
#> Columns: 6
#> $ id                  <int> 15, 1, 18, 1, 11, 11, 17, 15, 9, 14, 3, 13, 13, 15…
#> $ date                <date> 2016-03-07, 2016-09-06, 2015-10-23, 2016-02-23, 2…
#> $ attendance_category <int> 5, 5, 5, 4, 2, 3, 3, 5, 4, 4, 5, 3, 5, 2, 5, 1, 1,…
#> $ diagnosis_1         <int> 7, 5, 6, 16, 15, 8, 16, 0, 18, 14, 14, 12, 1, 8, 0…
#> $ diagnosis_2         <int> 19, NA, NA, 2, 6, 5, 18, 12, 3, NA, NA, NA, 3, 9, …
#> $ diagnosis_3         <int> 18, NA, NA, NA, 99, NA, 12, 15, 15, NA, NA, NA, NA…

(Note that when the data is loaded by eider, the date columns are automatically converted to the date type for you: you do not need to do the manual processing above.)

This simplified table has 6 columns:

  • id, which is a numeric patient ID;
  • date, when the admission occurred;
  • attendance_category, a numeric value indicating the context for the patient’s admission;
  • diagnosis_1, diagnosis_2, and diagnosis_3, which are numeric values indicating the patient’s diagnoses. Note that diagnosis_2 and diagnosis_3 may not necessarily exist for every entry.

Feature 1: Total number of attendances

As a first example, we will calculate the total number of attendances for each patient. This feature may be specified in JSON as follows:

ae_count_filepath <- eider_example("ae_total_attendances.json")
writeLines(readLines(ae_count_filepath))
#> {
#>   "source_table": "ae",
#>   "transformation_type": "count",
#>   "grouping_column": "id",
#>   "absent_default_value": 0,
#>   "output_feature_name": "total_ae_attendances"
#> }

This JSON file is also provided as part of the package, and as with the data, can be accessed using the eider_example() function. It contains the following information:

  • source_table specifies the identifier by which the input table is provided to eider;
  • output_feature_name specifies the name of the column that will be created in the output table;
  • absent_default_value specifies the value that will be used when a patient does not appear in the table. In this case, the logical value to use is 0: if a patient does not appear in the A&E table, it means they have 0 attendances.
  • grouping_column specifies the column by which the table will be grouped. In this case, it is the id column.
  • transformation_type specifies the way in which the feature is calculated. Here, a value of "count" means that the number of rows for each id will simply be counted.

This is one of the simplest possible features that can be calculated using eider. It can be run using the run_pipeline() function:

res <- run_pipeline(
  data_sources = list(ae = ae_data_filepath),
  feature_filenames = ae_count_filepath
)

dplyr::glimpse(res$features)
#> Rows: 20
#> Columns: 2
#> $ id                   <int> 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,…
#> $ total_ae_attendances <int> 6, 4, 6, 3, 5, 4, 6, 5, 5, 10, 4, 5, 4, 8, 4, 7, …

As described in the introductory vignette, the run_pipeline() function returns both features and responses. In this case, because we provided ae_count_filepath as one of the feature_filenames, the data we are interested in is returned as part of res$features.

Notice also how the data_sources argument takes a named list. The names of this list are used to match the source_table in the JSON file to the actual data. In this case, because the source_table is "ae", we need to specify the data to be used as ae = ae_data_filepath.

Feature 2: Total number of neurology attendances in 2017

As a second example, we will calculate the total number of attendances for each patient for which:

  • the date is within 2017; and
  • they have a diagnosis pertaining to neurology (which corresponds to a diagnosis code of 13).

As before, this feature is still a "count" transformation. However, we must additionally apply a filter to the the table before performing the count, to ensure that only the rows we are interested in are counted (see the filtering vignette for more examples of this).

The date

In this filter, we want to constrain the date to be between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2017. There is no specific filter for a date range; however, we can construct this as the conjunction of two subfilters: one which restricts the date to be on or after 1 January 2017, and one which restricts it to be on or before 31 December 2017. Both of these filters must be simultaneously satisfied; thus, we need to use an "and" filter:

{
    ...,
    "filter": {
        "type": "and",
        "subfilter": {
            "date1": {
                "column": "date",
                "type": "date_gt_eq",
                "value": "2017-01-01"
            },
            "date2": {
                "column": "date",
                "type": "date_lt_eq",
                "value": "2017-12-31"
            }
        }
    }
}

Note that the names for the subfilters—"date1" and "date2"—are arbitrary; they are just used to distinguish between the two subfilters. You can choose any names you consider useful.

The diagnosis

Because the numeric diagnosis can occur in any of the three diagnosis columns, we need to check all three and retain any rows where any of the three diagnosis columns are equal to 13.

This is accomplished with an "or" filter:

{
    ...,
    "filter": {
        "type": "or",
        "subfilter": {
            "diag1": {
                "column": "diagnosis_1",
                "type": "in",
                "value": [13]
            },
            "diag2": {
                "column": "diagnosis_2",
                "type": "in",
                "value": [13]
            },
            "diag3": {
                "column": "diagnosis_3",
                "type": "in",
                "value": [13]
            }
        }
    }
}

Combining both filters

To combine both filters, we can nest both of these within an "and" filter.

{
    ...,
    "filter": {
        "type": "and",
        "subfilter": {
            "date": {
                "type": "and",
                "subfilter": {
                    "date1": {
                        "column": "date",
                        "type": "date_gt_eq",
                        "value": "2017-01-01"
                    },
                    "date2": {
                        "column": "date",
                        "type": "date_lt_eq",
                        "value": "2017-12-31"
                    }
                }
            },
            "diag": {
                "type": "or",
                "subfilter": {
                      "diag1": {
                          "column": "diagnosis_1",
                          "type": "in",
                          "value": [13]
                      },
                      "diag2": {
                          "column": "diagnosis_2",
                          "type": "in",
                          "value": [13]
                      },
                      "diag3": {
                          "column": "diagnosis_3",
                          "type": "in",
                          "value": [13]
                      }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Note that this can in principle be simplified, because

(date1 AND date2) AND (diag1 OR diag2 OR diag3)

is really the same as

date1 AND date2 AND (diag1 OR diag2 OR diag3)

and so we do not really need to nest the filters so deeply. However, the above will work correctly, so we will keep it as it is.

The feature

The JSON file for this feature is again provided as part of the package. It is exactly the same as the earlier example, except that the filter above has been added in.

ae_neurology_filepath <- eider_example("ae_attendances_neurology_2017.json")
writeLines(readLines(ae_neurology_filepath))
#> {
#>   "source_table": "ae",
#>   "transformation_type": "count",
#>   "grouping_column": "id",
#>   "absent_default_value": 0,
#>   "output_feature_name": "total_neurology_ae_attendances",
#>   "filter": {
#>     "type": "and",
#>     "subfilter": {
#>       "date": {
#>         "type": "and",
#>         "subfilter": {
#>           "date1": {
#>             "column": "date",
#>             "type": "date_gt_eq",
#>             "value": "2017-01-01"
#>           },
#>           "date2": {
#>             "column": "date",
#>             "type": "date_lt_eq",
#>             "value": "2017-12-31"
#>           }
#>         }
#>       },
#>       "diag": {
#>         "type": "or",
#>         "subfilter": {
#>           "diag1": {
#>             "column": "diagnosis_1",
#>             "type": "in",
#>             "value": [
#>               13
#>             ]
#>           },
#>           "diag2": {
#>             "column": "diagnosis_2",
#>             "type": "in",
#>             "value": [
#>               13
#>             ]
#>           },
#>           "diag3": {
#>             "column": "diagnosis_3",
#>             "type": "in",
#>             "value": [
#>               13
#>             ]
#>           }
#>         }
#>       }
#>     }
#>   }
#> }

This feature can be run in the same way as the previous one. To make things slightly more interesting, we will provide both features to run_pipeline() at the same time:

res <- run_pipeline(
  data_sources = list(ae = ae_data_filepath),
  feature_filenames = c(ae_count_filepath, ae_neurology_filepath)
)

dplyr::glimpse(res$features)
#> Rows: 20
#> Columns: 3
#> $ id                             <int> 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 1…
#> $ total_ae_attendances           <int> 6, 4, 6, 3, 5, 4, 6, 5, 5, 10, 4, 5, 4,…
#> $ total_neurology_ae_attendances <int> 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, …

In this case, we can see that patient 0 (for example) has had 9 total attendances, but only 1 of these were in 2017 and resulted in a neurology diagnosis.

Checking the results (so far)

We can verify some of the results above using a standard dplyr pipeline. For feature 1:

ae_data %>%
  dplyr::group_by(id) %>%
  dplyr::summarise(total_ae_attendances = dplyr::n()) %>%
  dplyr::glimpse()
#> Rows: 20
#> Columns: 2
#> $ id                   <int> 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,…
#> $ total_ae_attendances <int> 6, 4, 6, 3, 5, 4, 6, 5, 5, 10, 4, 5, 4, 8, 4, 7, …

and for feature 2:

ae_data %>%
  dplyr::filter(date >= "2017-01-01", date <= "2017-12-31") %>%
  dplyr::filter(diagnosis_1 == 13 | diagnosis_2 == 13 | diagnosis_3 == 13) %>%
  dplyr::group_by(id) %>%
  dplyr::summarise(total_neurology_ae_attendances = dplyr::n()) %>%
  dplyr::glimpse()
#> Rows: 2
#> Columns: 2
#> $ id                             <int> 2, 6
#> $ total_neurology_ae_attendances <int> 1, 1

This tells us that patients 0 and 2 are the only ones with any neurology attendances in 2017, and is consistent with the feature table that eider has calculated. However, notice that eider has taken care of joining the features together and inserting the missing value of 0 where necessary. Using eider also helps to avoid errors that can easily creep in when data is mutated in a long script.

Feature 3: Whether a patient has ever attended A&E

Through a slight modification of the first feature, we can also calculate whether a patient has ever attended A&E. This is a binary feature, which has values of either 1 (if the patient has attended A&E) or 0 (if they have not). All we need to do is to replace the transformation_type with "present" (instead of "count"):

ae_present_filepath <- eider_example("has_visited_ae.json")
writeLines(readLines(ae_present_filepath))
#> {
#>   "source_table": "ae",
#>   "transformation_type": "present",
#>   "grouping_column": "id",
#>   "output_feature_name": "has_visited_ae"
#> }
res <- run_pipeline(
  data_sources = list(ae = ae_data_filepath),
  feature_filenames = ae_present_filepath
)

dplyr::glimpse(res$features)
#> Rows: 20
#> Columns: 2
#> $ id             <int> 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 1…
#> $ has_visited_ae <dbl> 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1…

Feature 4: The number of days since the last A&E attendance

As an example of a completely different transformation type, we look at the "time_since" feature type here. As the name suggests, this calculates the time since an event: in this case, we specify “from_first”: “false”and“cutoff_date”: “2021-03-25” to calculate the time since the last event up to 25 March 2021; and "time_units": "days" to return the value in days. The "date_column" specifies the name of the column in the input table which contains the date of attendance.

The default value for patients who do not appear in this dataset should, logically, be set to something large, to indicate that they have not had a recent A&E attendance. In this case we use 2000.

days_since_ae_filepath <- eider_example("days_since_last_ae.json")
writeLines(readLines(days_since_ae_filepath))
#> {
#>   "source_table": "ae",
#>   "grouping_column": "id",
#>   "transformation_type": "time_since",
#>   "time_units": "days",
#>   "from_first": false,
#>   "output_feature_name": "days_since_last_ae_visit",
#>   "date_column": "date",
#>   "cutoff_date": "2021-03-25",
#>   "absent_default_value": 2000
#> }
res <- run_pipeline(
  data_sources = list(ae = ae_data_filepath),
  feature_filenames = days_since_ae_filepath
)

dplyr::glimpse(res$features)
#> Rows: 20
#> Columns: 2
#> $ id                       <int> 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,…
#> $ days_since_last_ae_visit <dbl> 1344, 1661, 1223, 1428, 1569, 1349, 1220, 125…